Air emissions

Direct and indirect air emissions

Total absolute and normalised GHG emissions (scopes 1, 2 and 3)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
All scopes (including location-based Scope 2) tonnes CO2e 167,301.67 3,219.07 28,242.23 62,993.89 27,947.16
All scopes (including market-based Scope 2) tonnes CO2e         27,698.19
Scope 11 tonnes CO2e 166,266.27 1,588.88 25,029.50 59,465.20 24,990.05
Scope 2 (location-based)2 tonnes CO2e 289.37 279.75 420.11 402.17 351.15
Scope 2 (market-based)2 tonnes CO2e         102.18
Scope 33 tonnes CO2e 746.04 1,350.45 2,792.62 3,126.51 2,605.95
Scope 1, 2 (location-based) and 3 normalised tonnes CO2e per 1,000 hours worked 87.72 9.33 35.61 40.77 41.58
Scope 1, 2 (market-based) and 3 normalised tonnes CO2e per 1,000 hours worked         41.21

 

Direct air emissions

Absolute and normalised direct GHG emissions (scope 11)

(tonnes CO2e/tonnes CO2e per 1,000 hours worked)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Cairn total 166,266.27/
87.18
1,588.88/
4.60
25,029.50/
31.56
59,465.20/
38.48
24,990.05/
37.18
Greenland 166,266.27/
102.63
604.58/
18.74
5,742.73/
79.50
2.21/
1.26
0.00/
0.00
Ireland NA/
NA
NA/
NA
NA/
NA
4,721.85/
159.07
0.00/
0.00
Malta NA/
NA
NA/
NA
NA/
NA
499.40/
65.32
0.00/
0.00
Morocco NA/
NA
972.69/
100.11
18,900.23/
53.73
12,967.76/
40.29
0.00/
0.00
Nepal 0.00/
0.00
7.03/
1.12
0.04/
0.01
0.00/
0.00
NA/
NA
Norway NA/
NA
0.00/
0.00
0.00/
0.00
0.23/
0.01
0.00/
0.00
Senegal NA/
NA
NA/
NA
383.26/
31.27
41,270.54/
50.60
24,990.05/
59.96
Spain NA/
NA
4.58/
0.34
3.21/
0.27
3.21/
0.29
0.00/
0.00

 

Total NOx emissions

(tonnes)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Cairn total 3,099.17 29.68 467.15 1,110.00 466.62

NOx emissions

(tonnes)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Greenland 3,099.17 11.29 107.24 0.04 0.00
Ireland NA NA NA 88.18 0.00
Malta NA NA NA 9.33 0.00
Morocco NA 18.17 352.69 241.85 0.00
Nepal 0.00 0.13 0.00 NA NA
Senegal NA NA 7.16 770.53 466.62
Spain NA 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.00

 

Total SO2 emissions

(tonnes)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Cairn total 208.70 2.00 31.46 74.75 31.42

SO2 emissions

(tonnes)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Greenland 208.70 0.76 7.22 0.00 0.00
Ireland NA NA NA 5.94 0.00
Malta NA NA NA 0.63 0.00
Morocco NA 1.22 23.75 16.29 0.00
Nepal 0.00 0.01 0.00 NA 0.00
Senegal NA NA 0.48 51.89 31.42
Spain NA 0.01 NA 0.00 0.00

 

Total VOCs

(tonnes)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Cairn total 104.35 1.00 15.73 37.37 15.71

VOCs

(tonnes)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Greenland 104.35 0.38 3.61 0.00 0.00
Ireland NA NA NA 2.97 0.00
Malta NA NA NA 0.31 0.00
Morocco NA 0.61 11.88 8.14 0.00
Senegal NA NA 0.24 25.94 15.71

 

Indirect air emissions

Absolute and normalised GHG emissions from purchased electricity (location-based scope 22)

(tonnes CO2e/tonnes CO2e per 1,000 hours worked)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Cairn total 289.37/0.15 279.75/0.81 420.11/0.53 402.17/0.26 351.15/0.52
Greenland 21.56/0.01 14.40/0.45 17.97/0.25 11.35/6.48 0.00/0.00
Morocco NA/NA 0.00/0.00 4.69/0.01 4.96/0.02 2.80/0.62
Nepal 0.01/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 NA/NA 0.00/0.00
Norway NA/NA 1.60/0.06 1.48/0.04 1.30/0.04 8.46/0.22
Senegal NA/NA NA/NA 1.87/0.15 22.10/0.03 27.22/0.07
Spain 0.00/0.00 16.20/1.21 17.07/1.44 13.38/1.20 0.00/0.00
United Kingdom 247.29/0.89 247.54/0.97 377.02/1.24 349.07/1.07 312.67/1.48

 

Absolute and normalised GHG emissions from purchased electricity (market-based scope 22)

(tonnes CO2e/tonnes CO2e per 1,000 hours worked)

  2015
Cairn total 102.18/0.15
Morocco 2.80/0.62
Norway 43.25/1.14
Senegal 27.22/0.07
United Kingdom 28.92/0.14

 

Total absolute and normalised GHG emissions from business travel (scope 33)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Business travel (tonnes CO2e/tonnes CO2e per 1,000 hours worked) 746.04/
0.39
1,350.45/
3.91
2,792.62/
3.52
3,126.51/
2.02
2,605.95/
3.88
Air travel (tonnes CO2e) 746.04 1,342.63 2,783.67 3,117.61 2,601.65
Rail travel (tonnes CO2e) NA 7.81 8.95 8.91 4.31

Note: Data has been provided for individual countries where there have been relevant emissions.

Note: We report our GHG emissions in accordance with the GHG Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard (World Resources Institute/World Business Council for Sustainable Development). All GHG emissions are reported in tonnes of carbon dioxide CO2 equivalent (CO2e).

To meet UK reporting requirements, GHG emissions need to be reported normalised to an appropriate performance measure representative of the business. As Cairn did not have revenue or operated production facilities in 2015, or the previous four years, and activities were of an exploration nature only (i.e. seismic surveys and exploration drilling), its GHG emissions have been normalised to total employee and contractor hours.

  1. Scope 1 emissions: direct GHG emissions which occur from sources that are owned or controlled by the company, for example, emissions from combustion in owned or controlled boilers, furnaces, vehicles, etc.

    At present Cairn is undertaking exploration activities only. We are not operating any production assets. Our Scope 1 emissions arise from:

    • fuel combustion during offshore rig, marine vessel and aircraft operations as well as a very small amount during use of land-based vehicles (total: 99.999%); and
    • incineration of waste on marine vessels/rigs (0.001%).

    The rig, vessels and helicopters keep a daily log of fuel usage and each provide us with a total figure for fuel consumption, in litres, at the end of each month. Fuel consumption figures for land-based vehicles (<0.3% of total fuel consumption) are partly drawn from accurate fuel consumption records and partly from estimates when exact fuel usage is impractical to track.

    A fuel density figure is used to convert litres of fuel into tonnes. The fuel density is provided by the rig, vessels or helicopter operator when available (most of the time in 2015). Otherwise, a typical density is used from ‘Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Methodologies for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry’, American Petroleum Institute (API), 2009. Figures in tonnes are then converted into CO2e using emission factors.

    For calculating Scope 1 GHG emissions we use emission factors for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the API Compendium 2009.

    Estimates and uncertainties

    • Petrol and diesel consumption for land-based vehicles at shore bases/offices was partly estimated. This represents less than 0.3% of fuel consumption during operations in Senegal and overall.
    • The mass of waste incinerated on board vessels is usually based on estimates however this represents a tiny amount compared to overall emissions (<0.0001 tonnes CO2E).
    • We use the most applicable emission factors available but there will always be a small margin of error from these as they may not match fuel type exactly.
  2. Scope 2 emissions: indirect electricity emissions are from the generation of purchased electricity consumed by the company. Purchased electricity is defined as electricity that is purchased or otherwise brought into the organisational boundary of the company.

    Our Scope 2 Emissions arise from:

    • Use of electricity in our offices and shore bases.

    In 2015 we updated our methodology for calculating Scope 2 Emissions in line with the new Greenhouse Gas Protocol Scope 2 Guidance that was launched in January 2015. As a result we now report Scope 2 emissions in two ways: according to a location-based method and a market-based method. For the location-based method we use emission factors from the IEA (International Energy Agency) Report ‘CO2 emissions from Fuel Combustion Highlights’ (2013 Edition), p110-112 ‘CO2 emissions per kWh from electricity generation’. These are grid average emission factors for each country. For district heating and cooling we use location-based emission factors from DEFRA 2015.

    For the market-based method we use emission factors, where available, in the following order of preference:

    1. Supplier-specific emission factor – obtained from Cairn offices' electricity suppliers.
    2. Residual mix emission factors - obtained from the RE-DISS II document ‘European Residual Mixes 2014’, last updated in June 2015.
    3. Location-based emission factors. These are the same IEA and DEFRA emission factors that we use for calculating location-based emissions.

    Supplier-specific emission factors were requested from the electricity suppliers of all of Cairn’s offices but were only available for the Edinburgh and London offices. Market-based scope 2 figures for Norway were calculated using the residual mix emission factor for Norway. For Morocco and Senegal there were no residual mix factors available so the location-based factors were used.

    We are not able to obtain supplier-specific emission factors for previous years so all Scope 2 data prior to 2015 is calculated according to the location-based method.

    Estimates and uncertainties

    • Most of our electricity consumption happens in our head office in Edinburgh (77% of our total electricity consumption in 2015), followed by London and Stavanger (both 9% of total). Electricity consumption for the Edinburgh, London, Dakar (<5% of total) and Rabat (<1% of total) offices is taken from meter readings. London office figures were taken from October 2014 to October 2015 because the fourth quarter figure for the London office is not yet available at reporting time. Electricity consumption for the Stavanger office is calculated as a proportion of the overall building consumption.
    • There is always a degree of inaccuracy in emission factors. Also, there is no electricity emission factor available for Greenland so we use the Denmark factor instead.
  3. Scope 3 emissions: Scope 3 emissions are a consequence of the activities of the company, but occur from sources not owned or controlled by the company.

    Cairn currently reports Scope 3 emissions from business travel, including air and rail travel, but not tube travel.

    For calculating Scope 3 (business travel) GHG emissions we use the DEFRA methodology, including its recommendation to include an uplift for the influence of radiative forcing in air travel emissions. This uplift ensures that the maximum climate impact of an organisations’ travel habits is captured. In our air travel GHG emissions calculations we use journey type (domestic, short haul, long haul), seat class (economy, premium economy, business, first) and distance travelled. In our rail travel GHG emissions calculations we use rail type (national rail, international rail) and distance. We updated to DEFRA 2015 emission factors this year.

    It is Cairn policy that all travel for Edinburgh and London based staff, and usually the smaller offices, is booked using its corporate travel agent, HRG, except under special exception. As a result of this, the majority of our travel data is obtained in a report from HRG and includes details on journey type, seat class and kilometres travelled. Travel data is also obtained from other Cairn offices, from a travel expense claim report from Edinburgh’s accounts department, and through communication with executive assistants in the Edinburgh office. Where journey kilometres are not provided with the data, these are obtained from internet resources, e.g. air miles calculator, travelmath and Virgin trains.

    Estimates and uncertainties

    • Not all HRG flight data can be broken down into flight sectors with the corresponding seat class so there is a degree of uncertainty in this, e.g. GHG emissions for some of the domestic flight sectors may be calculated using short or long haul flight emission factors.
    • Travel data obtained from travel expenses does not always show whether a journey is single or return so this sometimes has to be assumed. In addition, the seat class of these flights is not shown however flights booked outside the HRG system are usually with budget airlines so the majority are known to be economy class. These flights are not broken down into sectors but the majority are domestic or short haul/European flights which are only one flight sector.
    • For rail travel data obtained from travel expenses, some of the journey distances are based on estimates.
    • Travel data provided by Cairn’s Norway office (from their travel provider) does not include train journeys so an estimate has to be made for these.
    • Occasional flights/train journeys booked by individuals, based in Cairn’s offices outside the UK, might get missed however this is considered minimal.

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